Low Blood Pressure High Heart Rate

Low blood pressure coupled with a high heart rate is normal when it happens momentarily — like when we stand up — but long-term it could …Heart problems. Some heart conditions that can lead to low blood pressure include extremely low heart rate (bradycardia), heart valve …An abnormally fast heart rate (tachycardia) also can cause low blood pressure. The most common example of tachycardia causing low blood pressure is atrial …Heart rate and blood pressure do not necessarily increase at the same rate. A rising heart rate does not cause your blood pressure to … If you have high blood pressure with a low pulse, it means your blood is putting increased pressure on your blood vessels, but your heart’s …When your blood pressure drops, your heart rate increases and the blood vessels in other parts of the body constrict (narrow) to help maintain blood pressure. Your heart rate can increase without any change occurring in your blood pressure. As your heart beats faster, healthy blood vessels will expand … A simple bedside test that matches a change in heart rate with a drop in blood pressure after a patient stands may help doctors diagnose … The first and higher of the two is a measure of systolic pressure, or the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats and fills them with …You’ve probably heard that high blood pressure is a problem. … Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. My blood pressure is often higher when my heart rate is close to its usual resting rate (about 50 beats per minute) and lower when my heart is beating faster …Your blood pressure and your heart rate do not necessarily correlate, meaning your pulse is not usually a good indicator of either high or …Fortunately, high blood pressure can often be prevented or controlled. …

Low Blood Pressure High Heart Rate


Potassium can help regulate your heart rate and can reduce the …The hemodynamic changes associated with hypoglycemia include an increase in heart rate and peripheral systolic blood pressure, a fall in central blood …This abnormally low heart rate can cause the brain and other organs to become … High blood pressure (hypertension); Smoking; Heavy alcohol use …In response, your blood vessels quickly narrow and your heart rate increases … or low blood pressure, so it’s a good idea to get a proper diagnosis. When your heart beats, it pushes the blood around your body through blood vessels called arteries and capillaries. When your heart rests in …How fast the heart is beating. How strongly the heart contracts. How much blood comes into the heart from the veins. The pressure in the arteries that the …decrease the heart rate and relax the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body. Renin Inhibitors, decrease certain …When exercising, your heart rate will increase, but your blood pressure may stay the same or increase to a lesser extent. That’s because the …Faint if a slow heart rate causes a drop in blood pressure. … You can find out how fast your heart is beating by taking your pulse. If your heartbeat is …Heart rate (HR) is strongly associated with both peripheral and central blood pressures. This association has implications in hypertension (HTN) prognosis …

Low Blood Pressure Pregnancy

Low blood pressure during pregnancy is a normal occurrence. Fluctuating hormones and changes in circulation can often lower the blood …Low blood pressure during pregnancy happens because your body secretes hormones, and progesterone in particular, which help to relax the walls of your blood …Low blood pressure in pregnancy is normal. This occurs because the central nervous system expands quickly. When this happens, blood pressure is …Treating Low Blood Pressure · Staying hydrated · Consuming enough calories to support you and your baby · Avoiding standing for long periods of time · Moving slowly …Most women experience low blood pressure during pregnancy and this spans out in the first 24 weeks of gestation period. Low blood pressure occurs as a …Low blood pressure in pregnancy can be caused by natural fluid and hormonal shifts, low blood sugar levels, and dehydration. Orthostatic … 10 Signs of Low Blood Pressure During Pregnancy · Light-headedness— Any time, but most noticeably when sitting or standing up…This patient FAQ explains how uncontrolled hypertension can lead to a serious disorder called preeclampsia during pregnancy or soon after childbirth. Previous studies suggested that maternal hypotension during pregnancy (often defined as BP ≤ 110/65 mmHg) may be associated with reduced Utero- …



Although several studies reported a significant association between low blood pressure during pregnancy and poor perinatal outcomes, our analysis..What can you do about high blood pressure before pregnancy? · Get a preconception checkup. · Use birth control until your blood pressure is under control. · Get to …Very high blood pressure that starts in the second or third trimester. This is called gestational hypertension. It usually goes away after the baby is born. It can also be caused by: being pregnant; some medical conditions, such as diabetes; some medicines. Page last reviewed: 09 September 2020. Next review due …Gestational hypertension is high blood pressure that you develop while you are pregnant. It starts after you are 20 weeks pregnant. Dizziness is hormonal as your body prepares for the nine months of pregnancy. Your blood pressure is lowest during the middle of the second trimester. You can …Chronic hypertension: This is when you already had high blood pressure before you fell pregnant – for example if you already had a medical condition such as …Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. Having low blood pressure in pregnancy is normal and to be expected as your pregnancy progresses. If you feel feint or have dizzy spells, tell your doctor or …In pregnant women, chronic hypertension (also called preexisting hypertension) can be defined as hypertension known to be present before …When you’re pregnant, your cardiovascular system undergoes dramatic changes to accommodate the baby: heart rate increases so that the heart pumps more blood per …

Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

Doctors speak of hypotension or low blood pressure when the blood pressure falls below a certain limit: the first value below 100 mmHg, the second value below 65 mmHg. Dizziness, paleness, and freezing are sometimes symptoms of low blood pressure. Much more often, however, it goes unnoticed – and that is usually not a problem.

Doctors speak of hypotension or low blood pressure when the blood pressure falls below a certain limit: the first value (systome) below 100 mmHg, the second value (diastole) below 65 mmHg.

In contrast to high blood pressure (hypertension), low blood pressure (hypotension) is not a disease, but rather has a positive effect on life expectancy. Many people have low blood pressure that does not cause discomfort. Other people complain of poor circulation, which often occurs when standing for long periods of time or suddenly changing position. As a rule, low blood pressure does not require treatment. However, if you have symptoms of low blood pressure, you should see a doctor. This applies in particular to pregnant women as well as children, adolescents, and senior citizens.

Typical symptoms of low blood pressure are general disorders such as:

    • Dizziness and blackness in front of the eyes (especially in the morning and after changing position)
    • Sensation of coldness in hands and feet
    • Fatigue and lack of drive
    • Lack of concentration
    • Weather sensitivity
    • paleness
    • Sleep disorders and increased need for sleep
    • Palpitations, rapid pulse, and ringing in the ears
    • Sweats
    • Tendency to faint.

Above all, the dramatic-sounding consequences of low blood pressure such as palpitations, pulse irregularities, or a tendency to faint are rather rare. If so, these symptoms of hypotension tend to appear in susceptible individuals in stressful situations.

Shock And Low Blood Pressure

If the drop in blood pressure occurs suddenly and persists, with pronounced tiredness or loss of consciousness, please call an ambulance. These symptoms could indicate shock. A shock in the medical sense is a condition in which the oxygen supply to the organs is no longer ensured due to a lack of blood in the bloodstream. This deficiency can have very different causes. The most common are internal and external bleeding (mostly due to injuries) as well as disorders of the fluid balance, which continue to reduce the blood volume. Long-term diarrhea, massive vomiting, or profuse sweating can also cause shock. You can read more detailed information here: Shock


The causes of low blood pressure are often inexplicable from a medical point of view. However, there are a number of diseases or conditions that make low blood pressure more likely.

    • Body size: Tall, slim people are often affected.
    • Heredity: In the hereditary disposition, abnormal blood pressure regulation can be created.
    • Heart diseases such as heart failure, heart valve defects, or heart attacks are plausible causes of low blood pressure.
    • Vascular diseases such as aortic arch syndrome or venous weakness are also among the understandable causes of low blood pressure

Other reasons for low blood pressure are:

    • Disorders of the nervous or endocrine system (especially thyroid and adrenal dysfunction)
    • Infectious diseases such as bacterial or viral infections
    • Heavy blood loss or internal bleeding, including oozing bleeding (permanent low blood loss, for example in gastric and duodenal ulcers)
    • Lack of salt or fluid loss, for example through sweating, fever, vomiting, or diarrhea, and in poorly controlled diabetes through excessive urination.
    • Side effects of certain drugs, for example, those used against high blood pressure, but also antidepressants or antipsychotics.
    • pregnancy
    • excessive alcohol consumption
    • heavy smoking.

In medical therapy for low blood pressure, your doctor will first clarify the cause of the hypotension. In many cases, low blood pressure is just a symptom of another disease. Then it is important to treat this disease. This can also mean, for example, to reset the medication for high blood pressure.

Drug Therapy For Low Blood Pressure

Your doctor may use a variety of medications for low blood pressure. So-called sympathomimetics such as etilefrine or oxilofrine are often prescribed. These drugs increase the pressure in arteries and veins. Another possibility is the administration of the vascular-strengthening ergot alkaloid dihydroergotamine. Such drug therapies remain the exception. Usually, it is enough to push the blood pressure up a little with home remedies.

Self-help: home remedies for low blood pressure

The focus of self-help with low blood pressure is to stimulate circulation and thus increase blood pressure. The following recommendations for self-help with hypotension will help. But please ask a doctor first whether these recommendations also make sense for you.

    • Morning hot and cold alternating showers and brush massages stimulate the circulation.
    • Coffee or other beverages containing caffeine temporarily increase blood pressure. A glass of sparkling wine, on the other hand, is not recommended. Even if alcohol initially increases blood pressure, the opposite effect occurs after a short time – and you are limp than before.
    • Do gymnastics and sport regularly, walk instead of taking the elevator, better cycling than taking the train.
    • Rock your feet every now and then. This stimulates the venous pump and increases blood pressure.
    • Get enough sleep. Do not get up immediately after waking up, stretch your arms and legs. Slowly come to sit.
    • If you have varicose veins, please consistently wear compression stockings. This prevents blood from sinking into the legs.
    • Herbal medicines that stimulate the heart and circulation, such as camphor and hawthorn, are also helpful.

In many cases, especially in the elderly, low blood pressure is associated with some degree of dehydration. Make sure you drink enough. It should be at least around 1.5 liters per day. Water, fruit teas, and juice spritzers are particularly suitable because they are low in calories and therefore do not contribute to excess weight.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a form of blood cancer that occurs mainly in old age. It does not primarily affect blood formation in the spinal cord like chronic myeloid leukemia, but rather the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Read more about the symptoms, causes, therapy, and prevention of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL for short), the so-called lymphoid cells are malignant. This mainly affects the lymphatic organs such as lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. This is why this form of leukemia is also classified as cancer of the lymph glands (so-called malignant lymphomas). More precisely, CLL is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The term leukemia (colloquially blood cancer) comes from the fact that the degenerated cells also appear in the blood. In addition, the bone marrow is regularly affected by CLL.

In another form of chronic leukemia, the much more aggressive chronic myeloid leukemia, the blood cell formation system in the bone marrow is degenerates.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common form of blood cancer in Germany. The number of new cases per year is around 6,000. Men get sick significantly more often than women. According to the Society of Epidemiological Cancer Registers in Germany (gekid.de) from 2014, the number of new cases per 100,000 population and year (annual incidence) is 5.5 for men and 2.9 for women. The frequency peak is between 70 and 75 years. This is why chronic lymphocytic leukemia is sometimes referred to as old age leukemia.

Symptoms of chronic lymphocytic leukemia are mainly painless, swollen lymph nodes, poor performance, paleness, shortness of breath, and a noticeably easy bleeding tendency. The latter is noticeable through quick bruises, nosebleeds when blowing the nose, and bleeding gums when brushing your teeth or when biting off. Increased susceptibility to infections is also common.

If the liver or spleen is affected, pressure pain in the upper abdomen or indigestion can occur. In principle, however, any organ can be affected by chronic lymphocytic leukemia. That is why many more symptoms are conceivable.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia


The typical symptoms that indicate cancer (so-called B symptoms) such as fever, pronounced night sweats, loss of appetite, unwanted or unclear weight loss, and pain are rare in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

The exact causes of chronic lymphocytic leukemia are not yet known. However, a genetic predisposition seems to play a role in the development of CLL. Environmental factors such as pesticides or asbestos may increase the risk. Health professionals also refer to age as a risk factor for CLL. The older a person is, the higher the risk of developing chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

The diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia is often the result of a routine blood test. After initial suspicion, examinations such as so-called immune phenotyping and a blood smear follow to confirm the diagnosis. You can see healthy and pathologically altered lymphocytes. Bone marrow examinations and imaging procedures such as ultrasound examinations (sonography) or computed tomography (CT) can follow.

Since chronic lymphocytic leukemia often occurs in old age and progresses very slowly, not all CLL is treated immediately after diagnosis. In the elderly, therapy might not be of any benefit in comparison with the stresses and strains of treatment. In this case, however, regular medical check-ups are essential. Doctors call this treatment strategy “watch and wait”.

If chronic lymphocytic leukemia causes symptoms or if the blood values ​​deteriorate, chemotherapy can be useful. In this drug therapy, for example, the active ingredients chlorambucil, deoxyformycin, cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, or bendamustine are used. In addition to chemotherapy, the CD20 antibodies rituximab, ofatumumab or obinutuzumab are recommended. The symptoms often go away for many years after chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy is also often used in younger people with CLL. Then, however, a more intensive form of chemotherapy is chosen, which suppresses the leukemia cells for as long as possible. Doctors call this treatment “complete remission”. A cure for CLL is not yet possible. There is still no remedy that can make the leukemia cells disappear permanently.

Antibodies As An Alternative To Chemotherapy

Monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab or alemtuzumab are used in chronic lymphocytic leukemia when chemotherapy is not possible. These antibodies work by attaching themselves to the malignant cells, causing them to die.

Radiation, Bone Marrow And Stem Cell Therapy

Bone marrow or stem cell transplants are not without risk in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The mortality rates are quite high during therapy. Therefore, this form of therapy, which is very good in itself, is only suitable for certain patients with CLL. In the case of large lymph gland tumors, radiation can be used.

The healing prospects (prognosis) are quite different in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Depending on the extent and spread, a life expectancy of between 3 and more than 20 years can be expected.

Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis

As with most diagnostic tests, a test result diagnostic of diabetes should be repeated to rule out laboratory error, unless the..Diabetes is diagnosed and managed by checking your glucose level in a blood test. There are three tests that can measure your blood glucose …Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Regardless of when you last ate, a blood sugar level of 200 milligrams …Should the current diagnostic criteria for diabetes be changed? How should normal glucose levels be defined? How should impaired..Type 2 Diabetes ADA Diagnosis Criteria · A fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher, or · A 2-hour plasma glucose …Diabetes mellitus (DM) is diagnosed without further testing in patients presenting with unequivocal hyperglycemia with acute metabolic decompensation [eg …In a random plasma glucose test, your doctor checks your blood sugar without regard to when you ate your last meal. This test, along with an …Diagnosis Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 1 · Masalah penglihatan dan riwayat kontrol ke dokter mata · Gejala penyakit ginjal dan riwayat cek laboratorium … The term diabetes mellitus describes diseases of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism that are characterized by hyperglycemia.

diabetes mellitus diagnosis


Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis · Fasting Plasma Glucose Test This is the standard test for diagnosing type 1 and type 2 diabetes. · Other Tests Diabetes also may be …Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to absolute insulin deficiency. Patients most often present with a few …There are two main types of diabetes mellitus, which are called type 1 … However, type 2 diabetes is increasingly diagnosed in children and in young …Tests for Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, and Prediabetes. Your doctor will have you take one or more of the following blood tests to confirm the diagnosis: …Early diagnosis, early treatment and the new diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus. Published online by Cambridge University Press: 09 March 2007. World Health Organization. Use of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Geneva: WHO, 2011. d’Emden MC, Shaw JE, …The diagnosis of diabetes is established by identifying the presence of hyperglycemia. Over the last 30 years, the diagnostic criteria have been …Consider diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in any patient with one or more of these features: • causes total insulin deficiency leading to hyperglycaemia … Abstract The classification of diabetes mellitus and the tests used for its diagnosis were brought into order by the National Diabetes Data …The major change recommended in the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus is the lowering of the diagnostic value of the fasting plasma glucose …Several studies have been carried out on the role of laboratory diagnosis for diabetes mellitus. The most common types of diabetes (type-1 and type-2).

Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus

Healthy eating; Regular exercise; Weight loss; Possibly, diabetes medication or insulin therapy; Blood sugar monitoring. These steps will help …Diet and exercise can help some people manage type 2 diabetes. If lifestyle changes aren’t enough to lower your blood sugar, you’ll need to take …At present there are different treatments, both oral and injectable, available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These agents are used as monotherapy or in combination with sulfonylurea, metformin, meglitinide, DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, or …Type 2 diabetes: If you have this type, your treatments can include medications (both for diabetes and for conditions that are risk factors for …Insulin remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes. Insulin is also an important therapy for type 2 diabetes when blood glucose levels …People with type I diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes may need to inject or inhale insulin to keep their blood sugar levels from becoming too high. People with type 1 diabetes almost always require insulin therapy and will become very sick without it. Many people with type 2 diabetes require insulin as … Both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies are used to reduce insulin resistance. Nonpharmacologic approaches include a low-calorie diet, …Type 2 diabetes is a long-term medical condition in which your body doesn’t use insulin properly, resulting in unusual blood sugar levels.In most cases, type 2 diabetes treatment begins with weight reduction through diet and exercise. A healthy diet for a person with diabetes is …Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a hereditary disease caused by the accumulation of glucose in the blood [1]. Studies showed that the number of diabetic patients …

treatment for diabetes mellitus


Initial treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus includes lifestyle changes focusing on diet, increased physical activity and …Compared with type 1 diabetes mellitus patients, the majority of type 2 patients typically do not require daily insulin doses. The disease can be treated …Treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Treatment typically includes diet control, exercise, home blood glucose testing, and in some cases, oral medication and/or insulin …Regular blood glucose monitoring tests whether the treatment being followed is helping to manage blood glucose levels or whether you need to adjust your …About 80% of patients with liver cirrhosis may have glucose metabolism disorders, 30% show overt diabetes mellitus (DM). Type 2 diabetes is a blood glucose disorder usually associated with being overweight. Treatment will focus on lifestyle changes and medication. Guideline on clinical investigation of medicinal products in. 14 the treatment or prevention of diabetes mellitus. 15. Table of contents. In addition to the treatment from healthcare professionals, understanding your diabetes and being able to manage your own diabetes is very important. What is …

Complications With Diabetes Mellitus

Family history (parent or sibling) of prediabetes or Type 2 diabetes. Being African-American, Hispanic, Native American, Asian-American race or …Therefore, changes in small arteries and capillaries are not responsible for only microvascular long-term complications in patients with diabetes (retinopathy, …Complications of Diabetes Mellitus · Diabetic Retinopathy · Diabetic Nephropathy · Diabetic Neuropathy · Macrovascular Disease · Cardiomyopathy · Infection. Possible complications include kidney failure, leg amputation, vision loss, and nerve damage. Adults with diabetes also have a two- to three-fold increased risk of …A significant number of complications accompany DM. However, the most dilapidating effects of DM and its associated vascular complications are …Hyperglycemia, the common characteristic of both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), has the potential to cause…The complications of DM are divided into macrovascular (coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease) and microvascular (retinopathy, …Microvascular complications of diabetes include retinal, renal, and possibly neuropathic disease. Macrovascular complications include coronary artery and …

Complications With Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes complications · Cardiovascular disease · Kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy) · Nerve disease (diabetic neuropathy) · Eye disease ( …Diabetes Complications Are Related · Heart disease and stroke: People with diabetes are two times more likely to have heart disease or a stroke as people without …With type 2 diabetes, you must control your blood glucose level if you want to avoid short- and long-term complications. Long-term complications of diabetes · You could have eye problems. · Your feet and skin can develop sores and infections. · Diabetes may make it …Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes … Avoid the most common diabetes complications with these helpful tips. Diabetic retinopathy may be the most common microvascular complication of diabetes. It is responsible for ∼ 10,000 new cases of blindness..Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Complications, Musculoskeletal … age and diabetes mellitus as risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome. Nonvascular complications include infections, skin changes, and hearing loss. Some studies suggest that 2 DM increases the risk of dementia and impaired …

Diabetes Mellitus ICD 10

Code I10 is the diagnosis code used for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. · ICD (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related …ICD-10-CM Code E11 Type 2 diabetes mellitus · The ICD code E11 is used to code Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state · Coding Notes for E11 Info for medical coders on …Drug or chemical induced diabetes mellitus. · E09.43: Drug or chemical induced diabetes mellitus due to underlying condition with diabetic …Note: The ICD-10 code for long term, current insulin use (Z79.4) would not be added in this case. The patient is a Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic and …Type 2 diabetes mellitus (E11.-). There is a combination code for type 2 diabetes with chronic kidney disease, and the tabular instructs the coder to use an … ICD code browser for Advanced orthopedic center educational site for postgraduate learners. … Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus …In this situation, it might be more accurate to code Type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperglycemia. (E11.65). ICD-10 does not currently define hyperglycemia, but …ICD-10-CM Code for Type 2 diabetes mellitus without complications E11.9. ICD-10 code E11.9 for Type 2 diabetes mellitus without complications is a medical …ICD-10 Codes for Other Types of Diabetes · Other specified diabetes mellitus with diabetic arthropathy: E13.61 · Other specified diabetes mellitus … Kode ICD 10 Untuk Diabetes Karena Kondisi yang Mendasari ·

Diabetes Mellitus ICD 10

Diabetes mellitus Karena kondisi yang mendasarinya Dengan arthropathy diabetes: E08.61 …If the type of diabetes that the patient has is not documented in the medical record, E11 codes for type 2 diabetes should be used as a default. ICD-10-CM Coding Tip. Secondary Diabetes Mellitus. In an effort to aid Health Information Management Coding and Medical Billing Professionals with. This is due to the creation of combination codes that are greatly used in coding for diabetic conditions. In ICD-10-CM, the combination code includes the type …Common Diabetes ICD-10 Diagnosis Codes. E10.22/E11.22 Diabetes, Renal Complication … E10.35XX Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Proliferative Retinopathy. Question: What would be the appropriate ICD-10 code for 250.03 Type 1 Diabetes mellitus, juvenile, uncontrolled? A note under the code for type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic chronic kidney disease instructs coders to use an additional code to identify …

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a collective term for chronic metabolic diseases which, if left untreated, lead to permanently high blood sugar levels. Depending on the etiology, they are divided into diabetes mellitus type 1, diabetes mellitus type 2, specific special forms of diabetes, and gestational or gestational diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 diabetes mellitus often occurs in children and adolescents. Immune-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas leads to an absolute insulin deficiency. Insulin autoantibodies (IAA), cytoplasmic islet cell antibodies (ICA), antibodies against the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GADA), and antibodies against tyrosine kinase IA-2 (IA-2A) play a decisive role. More information about type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common form of diabetes at over 90 percent. In the process, an initially impaired insulin effect on the body cells (insulin resistance) turns into reduced insulin secretion in the islets of Langerhans without therapy. In addition to a pronounced genetic disposition, the disease is closely linked to metabolic syndrome. More information about type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes Mellitus

Specific Forms Of Diabetes (Formerly Type 3 Diabetes)

“Specific forms of diabetes” represent a very heterogeneous group of diabetes diseases pathophysiologically and therapeutically. The following causes are differentiated:

Diseases of the exocrine pancreas or destruction of pancreatic tissue, for example

    • Pancreatitis
    • cystic fibrosis
    • Hemochromatosis
    • Pancreatic cancer
    • Pancreatic surgery
    • Endocrinopathies such as Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly, hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, primary hyperaldosteronism, glucagonoma, somatostatinoma

Drug-chemically-induced; Medicines that affect glucose metabolism include

    • Anti-infectives such as pentamidine or moxifloxacin
    • Neuroleptics such as chlorpromazine, perphenazine, risperidone, and olanzapine
    • Antihypertensive drugs such as atenolol and metoprolol
    • Hormones such as glucocorticoids, thyroxine, and oral contraceptives
    • Lipid-lowering drugs such as nicotinic acid derivatives and statins
    • Immunosuppressants such as tacrolimus and cyclosporine A.
    • Antibodies such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab

Genetic defects in beta cell function, especially

    • MODY diabetes
    • mitochondrial forms of diabetes
    • transient or permanent neonatal diabetes
    • Genetic defects in the action of insulin, for example, type A insulin resistance, lipoatrophic diabetes, leprechaunism, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome
    • Other genetic syndromes and diseases associated with diabetes such as trisomy 21, Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome, Huntington’s disease, porphyrias, Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), Biedl-Bardet syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), Rare autoimmune-mediated forms of diabetes, for example in “stiff person” syndrome (SMS), presence of anti-insulin receptor antibodies

More information about “Specific Forms of Diabetes”.

Gestational Diabetes (Formerly Type 4 Diabetes)

Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a glucose tolerance disorder diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. Pregnancy hormones such as cortisol, estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin act as insulin counterparts and mediate an increasingly increased insulin resistance, which is accompanied by a falling beta-cell compensation. More information about gestational diabetes.

What are Signs That a Woman is Having a Heart Attack

As with men, women’s most common heart attack symptom is chest pain (angina) or discomfort. But women are somewhat more likely than men to experience some … indigestion · heartburn; weakness; sweating; nausea; cramping; dizziness; uneasiness. CAD can also lead to shortness of breath. If the heart and …Pain or discomfort in other areas of the upper body, including the arms, left shoulder, back, neck, jaw, or stomach. · Difficulty breathing or …Signs and symptoms of a heart attack in women · chest pain or discomfort in your chest that suddenly occurs and doesn’t go away. · the pain may spread to your …Heart attack symptoms for women · Neck, jaw, shoulder, upper back or abdominal discomfort · Shortness of breath · Pain in one or both arms · Nausea …Signs and Symptoms of Heart Attack · Uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain in the center of your chest. · Pain or discomfort in one or both arms, …Women may experience classic symptoms — such as chest pain and shortness of breath — as many men do, but they also tend to experience stomach pain, back pain, …

What are Signs That a Woman is Having a Heart Attack


6 Symptoms of Women’s Heart Attacks · Chest pain or discomfort. Chest pain is the most common heart attack symptom, but some women may experience it differently …Heart Attack Symptoms in Women · Pain or discomfort in different parts of the upper body (back, neck, jaw, arms or stomach) · Shortness of breath · Lightheadedness …Chest discomfort. Pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain, burning or heaviness · Sweating · Upper Body Discomfort. Neck, jaw, shoulder, arms, back · Nausea …Heart attacks in women · back, neck or shoulder pain · jaw pain · shortness of breath · heartburn-like symptoms · nausea and/or vomiting · pain in one …Heart attack warning signs and symptoms · Chest discomfort or pain (angina). · Dizziness, light-headedness, feeling faint or feeling anxious · Nausea, indigestion, …What heart attack symptoms are more common in women? · Pain in the back, neck, jaw, or throat · Indigestion · Heartburn · Nausea (feeling sick to … Major heart attack signs and symptoms in women and men: chest pain or discomfort;. What are the risk factors for heart attack? Several health …Heart attacks affect the well-being of men and women alike. But there’s more to heart attack than crushing chest pain. Women are likely to experience far …You may see a woman having a heart attack and not even realize it. For many women, symptoms are so subtle they don’t seek treatment. The symptoms of heart attack can vary, depending on your age, sex, … obesity, or other risk factors, your chances of having a heart attack are even higher …